Implementation Plan

 Table 1  Hydrology and ecosystem variables to be measured in HiWATER.

Variable1
Ground measurement method
Remote sensing observation method
Airborne/ground-based remote sensing
Satellite remote sensing
Spatial resolution
Accuracy
Spatial
Accuracy
State variables and fluxes in hydrological and land surface model
ET
EC system, LAS, Lysimeter, isotope measurement
Imaging spectrometer, LiDAR1
5-10 m
90%
30-1000 m
80%
Runoff
ADCP, runoff plot, hydrologic section, hydrological station
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Irrigation
Water level gauge, flow meter, water meter
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
SM (surface and profile) and soil freeze/thaw status
TDR, COSMOS, GPR, gravimetric method
Low frequency microwave radiometer
100-500 m (radiometer)
0.04 m3m-3
3-50 km (radiometer)
0.06 m3m-3
LST
Infrared thermal imaging system
TIR spectrometer
5-10 m
2 K
60-1000 m
1-2 K
Vegetation canopy temperature
Infrared thermal imaging system
TIR spectrometer
5-10 m
2 K
60-1000 m
2-4 K
Soil temperature (profile)
Temperature sensor
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Soil heat flux
Heat flux plate
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Snow depth
Ruler, ultrasonic snow depth sensor
K- and Ka-band microwave radiometers
20-100 m radiometer
3-5 cm
N/A
N/A
Snow water equivalent
Snow pillow, Snow fork
K- and Ka-band microwave radiometers
20-100 m radiometer
3-5 cm
N/A
N/A
Snow grain size
Microscope, microscope camera
Hyperspectral sensor
1-5 m
80%
30-100 m
70%
Snow humidity
Snow Fork
Microwave radiometer
20-100 m
80%
30-1000 m (SAR)
70%
Snow surface concreting/ sublimation
EC system, Lysimeter
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
State variable in ecosystem model
GPP
Li-6400, EC system, ground-based LiDAR, harvesting method
VNIR and TIR2 sensors, LiDAR
5-10 m
85%
30-1000 m
80%
NPP
Li-6400, EC system
VNIR and TIRsensors, LiDAR
5-10 m
80%
30-1000 m
75%
LAI
LAI-2000, TRAC, LI-3100
VNIR sensor, LiDAR
1-5 m
85%
30-1000 m
80%
      Note: 1. Provide necessary parameters for the estimation of ET.
      2. Provide necessary parameters for the estimation of ecosystem productivity.
 
Table 2  Atmospheric forcing variables.
Variable
Ground measurement method
Remote sensing observation method
Airborne/ground-based remote sensing
Satellite remote sensing
Spatial resolution
Accuracy
Spatial resolution
Accuracy
Precipitation
Rain gauge, precipitation particle drop size analyzer
Weather radar, Doppler radar
3 km
70%
3-20 km
70%
Air temperature (gradient)
AMS
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Air pressure
AMS
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Specific humidity (gradient)
AMS
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Wind speed (gradient)
AMS
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Wind direction
AMS
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
CO2 concentration
Li7500
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Visible part of the direct component of solar radiation1
Pyranometer
N/A
N/A
90%
15-1000 m
90%
Visible part of the diffuse component of solar radiation
Pyranometer
N/A
N/A
90%
15-1000 m
85%
Near-visible part of the direct component of solar radiation
Pyranometer
N/A
N/A
90%
15-1000 m
90%
Near-visible part of the diffuse component of solar radiation
Pyranometer
N/A
N/A
90%
15-1000 m
85%
Longwave downward radiation
Pyrgeometer
N/A
N/A
90%
60-1000 m
90%
PAR
PAR radiometer, SunScan
N/A
N/A
90%
15-1000 m
90%
      Note: 1.Radiation will be estimated by all available remote sensing observations and in situ measurements obtained in IOP.
 
Table 3  Input parameters.
Variable
Ground measurement method
Remote sensing observation method
Airborne/ground-based remote sensing
Satellite remote sensing
Spatial resolution
Accuracy
Spatial resolution
Accuracy
Common parameters
DEM
Differential GPS
LiDAR
1-5 m
0.1 m
5-30 m
5 m (vertical direction)
LUCC
Field survey
Multispectral sensor, imaging spectrometer
1-5 m
N/A
5-30 m
90% (classification)
Vegetation map
Field survey
Multispectral sensor, imaging spectrometer
1-5 m
90% (classification)
5-30 m
90% (classification)
Plant structure
Field survey
Multispectral sensor, imaging spectrometer, LiDAR
1-5 m
90% (classification)
5-30 m
N/A
Energy balance parameters
Albedo
Albedometer
VNIR sensor
1-5 m
90%
15-1000 m
90%
Emissivity
TIR spectrometer
TIR spectrometer
5-10 m
0.01
60-1000 m
0.01
Vegetation parameters
Canopy height
Altimeter, HemiView, ground-based LiDAR
LiDAR
1 m
90%
N/A
N/A
Vegetation cover faction
Photography, visual check
VNIR sensor
1-5 m
85%
30-1000 m
85%
Canopy reflectance (visible)
Spectrometer
Visible sensor
5-10 m
90%
15-1000 m
90%
Canopy reflectance (near-infrared)
Spectrometer
Near-infrared sensor
5-10 m
90%
15-1000 m
90%
Canopy Transmissivity (visible)
PAR meter, spectrometer
Visible sensor
5-10 m
90%
15-1000 m
90%
Canopy Transmissivity (near-infrared)
Spectrometer
Near-infrared sensor
5-10 m
90%
15-1000 m
90%
C3/C4 plant classification
Field survey
Hyperspectral sensor
1-5 m
85%
30-100 m
80%
Chlorophyll content
SPAD-502
VNIR sensor
5-10 m
85%
15-1000 m
80%
Vegetation water content
Oven drying method
Hyperspectral sensor
5-10 m
80%
30-100 m
70%
Aerodynamics parameters
Aerodynamic roughness length
Gradient method+EC system
LiDAR
1-5 m
5 cm
-30 m
10 cm
Thermal roughness length
Gradient method+EC system
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Optical parameters
Aerosol, optical depth
Air sounding, sun-photometer
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
 
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